These are just some small tips when you're first moving to Linux from Windows/Mac. These are things that you are likely to use; so it may be helpful to have them all in one place.
|Item||on Windows||on Linux|
|Naming files.||Names are case insensitive||Case Counts!1
These are 3 different files:
xyz.txt, XYZ.txt, Xyz.txt
|Make a folder in the command prompt.||c:\>md||$ mkdir|
|Start a program/.bat and return to the prompt.||c:\>start [program]||$ [program] & disown
This will continue to send status messages to calling window. To suppress these messages (which can be useful), wrap the previous command in parenthesis. e.g. ( [program] & disown )
|List a text file out.||c:\>type xyz.txt | more||$ cat xyz.txt | less
(less allows you to move through the file with the up/dn arrow keys)
|Copy a file.||c:\ > copy||$ cp|
|Remove a file.||c:\ > delete||$ rm|
|ASK before overwriting or deleting.||$ cp -i
$ rm -i
(Here is how to do this "globally")
|Check the version of most CLI2 commands.||$ [program] --version|
|Get quick help on using most CLI commands.||$ [program] --help|
|Get in-depth help on most programs.||$ man [program]|
|rm'd files are potentially recoverable.
For greater security, see shred.
|see $ shred -- help | less|
|If you want Hillary Clinton-level hiding, see Bleachbit.||$ sudo apt-get install bleachbit|
To find your current OS version use lsb_release:
To find your current kernel version, use uname:
Although there are others, the most common Linux version of a Windows DOS .BAT file is a #Bash shell script. Unlike .BAT files, it is not the file extension that makes a bash script a bash script. It is the fact that it is executable and contains #!/bin/bash as the first line. That said, it is a common practice to name bash scripts with a .sh extension; so that you know what they are. #debian-ish distributions will also try to execute a .sh file as a bash script by default, even without the starting line of #!/bin/bash.
1 Case in Linux most often counts.
So for example, these "a"s are 2 different parameters:
$ tree -a # All files are listed.
$ tree -A # Print ANSI lines graphic indentation lines.
Comments in bash scripts (and python, and config files, and other places) are preceded with a "#" character.
2 CLI is Command Line Interface, which would be the command prompt/DOS on Windows.